Culture of Anisora

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The culture of Anisora is the pattern of social activity and symbolism associated with Anisora, her people and empire. It is heavily influenced by Anisora's sense of history and primacy in ancient times and the culture which emerged as a result. The Anisoran people take huge pride in their cultural heritage and it remains an extremely influential culture across Gotha today. It has remained one of the most significant proponents of Eastern culture and established much of the shared heritage nations across Anaria enjoy.

Anisoran literature, language, art, architecture, music, theatre, fashion and media are very influential and widely respected throughout Gotha. The humanities and the 'Arts' have always been Anisora's claim to fame within Gotha, from ancient times right up until the modern day. The notion of true civilisation is very important to Anisoran culture, and the people maintain a proud belief that their culture was one of the first, if not the first, truly civilised nations in Anaria.

Contents

Language

The official language of Anisora is Pastanan, spoken by approximately 30% of the population. However, the de facto language is Anisoran, spoken by approximately 91% of the population. Pastanan is an ancient language, which underwent something of a renewal two centuries ago, and the upper classes, academics and merchant classes take pride in their bilingualism and consider it a sign of their education and privilege. Modern Anisoran primarily derives from ancient Pastanan, however some two thousand years of linguistic evolution means there are significant differences. Pastanan is preserved through its official standardisation and the Anisoran reverence for ancient Pastanan literature and is taught compulsorily in Anisoran Electos schools. Pastanan is also widely accepted to be the language of academia and scholarship, particularly in Anaria.

There is considerable regional variation within modern Anisoran, particularly Eastern Anisoran (spoken in Pastana Province) and Western Anisoran (spoken across the water in the west). Other minority languages are spoken primarily in the Western borders and hills.

The Arts

The 'Arts' are held in very high regard within Anisora and are the bread and butter of Anisoran culture. Anisoran authors, poets, painters, composers, sculptors and actors are among the most culturally influential figures in history and contribute to Anisora's greatest cultural achievements. The nation's Peratolian Orkananism also means the Arts are seen as a vitally important aspect of religion and the worship of Vind.

Literature

Modern portrait of Pello
Main Article: Anisoran Literature

The Anisoran people are furiously proud of their literary tradition and list it among their finest achievements and contributions to world culture. At the modern foundation of Anisora, the nation inherited the illustrious tradition of ancient Pastanan literature, which the people see as fundamental to their modern cultural identity and as such has proved the basis for a considerable amount of modern Anisoran literature and wider culture.

Some of the most influential writers of ancient Anisora were the epic poets. Foremost amongst these would be Pello, often heralded in Anisora as the finest writer in history. He wrote a number of poetic works, but his most famous and influential work was his epic poem the Anisiad. Considered Anisora's official national epic, the poem narrates the legendary foundation of Anisora by the hero-emperor Anisor the Great. The poem has been read, studied and appreciated across Gotha, particularly Anaria, for millennia and continues to be the jewel in the Anisoran cultural crown. While Pello is the most famous, there were a number of other epic poets, writing in dactylic hexameter, who wrote considerable works encompassing many themes and styles. Pastanan Epic is largely characterised by weighty subject matter such as warfare and politics.

Modern portrait of Aullus

Other examples of influential Pastanan literature would be the 'Aurei' poets1 of the 53rd and 54th centuries, who pre-date Pello and are considered to have been a major influence on his and subsequent literature. The poets are largely famed for their love poetry, although many other themes are prevalent throughout the corpora of poets. The most well-known are the love poets Aullus and Jerronius, writing in the 53rd century. Aullus' erotic and mythological poetry is amongst the nation's favourite literature and has enjoyed a cultural renewal very recently with the emergence of the modern Anisoran Romantics.

While unavoidably drawing from these ancient traditions, Anisora is also a major force in modern literature and many modern Anisoran writers have experimented considerably and continue to influence modern world literature. Modern Anisoran is becoming the language of choice for most novelists, replacing the more traditional Pastanan, although the latter remains the standard language of poetry. The Anisoran novelists are a particularly popular force, with the mid-76th century being heralded as a novel golden age. Some famous modern Anisoran novels include D. Alfredo Picano's Staring at Birds and Dearest, G. Bella Rivellorri's Cathedral Hearts, A. Cornelio Petti's No Less an Empire, R. Enrica Franchino's Leaves of Winter and Columns, N. Matthias Gaudino's White Crows and L. Michela Bottari's The Journey Long.

The modern Anisoran Romantics encompass a movement of poetry, prose and theatre which began around the beginning of the 76th century. Members of the movement of particular note would be the modern poets Q. Tullio Sinsinetti and M. Giovanni Fansa, the novelists G. Livia Tamarius, L. Bella Rivellorri and S. Marcus Gendrio and the playwright M. Marius Fallvus.

The Pan-Anarian War gave rise to a number of Anisoran war poets and writers. While war had traditionally been a popular theme in Anisoran literature, the relentless scale of the conflict provided writers with unparalleled subject matter and morbid inspiration, which enabled them to write (often paradoxically) about their experiences of the war. Famous examples include G. Ottavio La Valla, S. Vito Tomasulo, T. Aurelio Tamburro and T. Clarissa Cararrus.

Visual Arts


The Porrias of Larromissa, attributed to the late 48th century sculptor Rellommo, is one of the most famous Marsian sculptures.

The visual arts are often held as highly as literature in the hearts of Anisorans. Like literature, Anisoran artists feel they slot into a great tradition that goes back millennia, and consequently are influenced to a large extent by what has come before them. Ancient Anisoran art, particularly in Pastana, has been the largest of these influences. Marsian sculpture of the 48th-50th centuries represents the highest 'classical' style. Marisan sculpture is dominated by marble portraiture and figurative studies, often nudes, of figures from Ancient Anisoran mythology and pagan belief. These sculptures have greatly influenced modern Anisoran sculptors, in particular those of the Praeclarum movement. The skill and dignified style of the ancient sculptures were fundamental in bringing about the Praeclarum cultural movement, which saw an artistic revolution sweep across Anaria.

Portrait of Benedetto by Alonso Sarno

The Praeclarum Movement began around the mid-73rd century and slowly picked up momentum, helped considerably by the Decan Programme of emperor Marius I in the late 74th century. Following the Anisoran Civil War, the new Decus dynasty embraced the cultural revolution and sponsored vast projects across the arts, with considerable emphasis on the visual arts.

Amongst the most famous figures to come out of the Anisoran Praeclarum movement was the artist Benedetto. Benedetto had an illustrious career under Decan patronage, and he soon rose to become the most famous artist of his time. His versatile skills across the arts made him a household name, but his contributions to the visual arts and architecture have made him immortal in the artistic world.

Benedetto's portraiture became the hallmark of his style as well as a leading light in the movement as a whole. The 'Imperial Style', named after his imperial patron and friend Marius I, became a popular style of imitation across Anaria and Gotha and endures in popularity today. He was also famed for his extensive sculptural projects. In particular, his religious sculptures remain a major part of the Praeclarum legacy and adorn Orkanan temples and cathedrals across Anaria.

Post-Praeclarum art in Anisora has changed considerably over the last century. The traditional classical styles, while still being revered, are not the only styles available to modern artists. Of particular significance are the Marriates, whose modern treatments of traditional themes, most notably landscapes, put Anisora at the forefront of modern art. Amberian impressionism has also proved to be very influential on Anisoran artists, including the painters D. Vallio Gullo and Q. Savina Portelli. More conservative innovations include the hugely popular Neolitterialistic style of the late 75th century, which became the standard style for the majority of court paintings across Anisora and elsewhere. The most famous of these would be L. Tullius Gotta, who became the pre-eminent artist of his generation and fathered a return to weighty severity in his work.

Other notable Anisoran artists of the last century include: R. Saverio Gallus, T. Vittorino Pullo, M. Valerius Bomulorri, C. Vallus Varus, R. Seneca Octalius, L. Gia Reni, S. Valentina Risso and S. Ulberto Ralaffi.

Architecture


The Imperial Senate Building in Pena is a famed example of neolitterialism

Modern Anisora has inherited a considerable architectural tradition from ancient Pastana. The ancient temples and civic buildings that dot Anisora's cities and countryside today, often in ruins but just as often in very good condition, have served as a constant inspiration and aspiration to imitate. The classical Pastanan architecture has been particularly influential. The style is dominated by large complexes, adorned with columns (of varying Orders) and pediments and are often lavishly decorated. Late Pastanan architecture also adds complexities such as vast domes and arches, which before had only appeared rarely in the architectural record.2 The remains of these styles are a constant reminder of the Pastanan civilisation, which modern Anisorans are keen to emulate.

The Latiarum Palace is the quintessential example of the Occidens style.

Beginning in the 61st through to the 65th centuries, the Pastanesque style became popular, drawing on elements from Late Pastanan architecture but adding considerable innovations, such as the Sastorrian Arch. The style was used extensively in early temples and religious buildings, including monasteries and abbeys. Examples of this style do not survive in great numbers, however Affilia Cathedral and St. Vilhelm's Abbey in Ulvia are amongst the best preserved.

The Praeclarum movement brought significant changes to the architectural styles of Anisora, moving from the Pastanesque and Gothic styles toward a revival of true Pastananism, taking a number of forms. The 'truest' revivalist style was neolitterialism, incorporating classical forms such as the Orders of architecture and pedimental facades. Significant imperial buildings could and were built in this style, most importantly the Imperial Senate Building and the renovated Raphael Building. Benedetto was a major figure in Praeclarum architecture, bringing neolitterialist elements to his architecture, but ultimately remaining true to the Decan programme.

The Decan Programme of the late 74th century brought about the iconic Occidens style. The style, arguably pioneered by A. Ermenegildo Serafino, the chief architect of Latiarum Palace in Pena, quickly became known as the 'Imperial style' or 'Decan style' and became the dominant architectural style in the new areas of the capital and elsewhere during the Praeclarum movement. The style is still extremely popular and has a presence in most Anarian cities. Other examples include the Effeligeto Club building in Pena and the Hallish Travellers Club in Eildun.

The Farrioloque style followed the Praeclarum styles and is famed for its ostentation. It became popular for use in religious buildings as well as private mansions and palaces and as such has a strong presence in modern Anisoran architecture. Notable examples include Ex. Depellorrion's Cathedral in Pena, Ex. Vallentina's Temple in Meporizzo, Prepporri Palace and Burrlington House.

Theatre

Interior of the Theatrum Imperiale in Valance.

From the formation of modern Anisora, the nation has had a vibrant tradition of theatre. There are two main theatre districts in Anisora, the first and oldest in the Scaena District of Valance, the second in Illigario District of Pena. The Scaena's Theatrum Imperiale (Imperial Theatre) is the oldest in Anisora, dating back to the early 73rd century.

The theatrical tradition is particularly proud of its contribution to the genre of tragedy. Toward the end of the Praeclarum cultural movement, tragedy became extremely popular across the Empire, and Anisora produced a great number of famous tragedians and plays. Some of the most famous include L. Dario Caprio's Philomines and Ships of State, F. Tullius Pegammus' Women of Pheloa and A. Silvius Querrimus' Penan Halls and Fathers.

Critics, however, place Anisoran comedy and burlesque theatre in especial regard. However, comedy is traditionally largely dismissed by the elite of Anisora as unrefined and vulgar, however this attitude has changed over recent years. Notable comedies would include: R. Ermenegildo Mizzi's An Ostentatious Journey and Mannerisms, which famously mocks the Anarian aristocracy, and Q. Francesco Nicolella's Angelo.

By convention most genres of theatre in Anisora were only performed in Pastanan, except comedy, until very recently. Of course, this did not stop various theatres putting on non-comedy plays in Anisoran anyway. However, a recent movement of playwrights petitioned Emperor Titus II for official permission to put on tragedies, romances etc. in common Anisoran and were finally granted permission in 7550. As a result, plays in modern Anisoran have flourished in the last two decades.

Music

Anisora has produced many notable composers and musical styles, particularly during the 75th century. The Anisoran national anthem Imperium Auri (Empire of Gold) was composed by T. Fulvius Sastatius in 7467 during a time of great patriotism in music. Other patriotic songs to have been produced at this time include L. Luca Vitella's 7475 Tellures Laetitiarum (Lands of Happiness) and S. Luisa Ragosta's 7459 Pastani Agri (Pastanan Fields). The classical style is very popular in Anisora and has produced some of the most famous composers in Gotha: B. Mauro Ripa, R. Michele Di Palo, Q. Raphael Revellus, L. Pio Giliberti and Pio Savino Lannuzzi, often described as one of the best composers in history.

Print

Popular Anisoran daily national newspapers in modern Anisoran include: La Gazzetta, Il Messaggero, Tempi, Gazzetta di Pena, Voci Anisore and Stampa Quotidiana. A number of newspapers are also printed in Pastanan, which mainly cater for aristocratic, academic, financial and imperial news. Among the most popular are: Imperialia Tempora (The Imperial Times), Quotidianus Praeco (The Daily Herald), Aeraria Tempora (The Financial Times) and Imperium Imperatorque (Empire and Emperor).

Broadcasting

Anisora has a number of national and local radio stations, covering a wide variety of programming, which broadcast across the Empire and beyond. The state owned Anisorum Nuntians Institutum (Anisoran Broadcasting Institution), the ABI, is the largest broadcaster in the Empire and operates four national radio stations and a number of smaller provincial and colonial radio stations. Of the four national radio stations, two are broadcast in Pastanan and two in Anisoran. Programmes across these stations include coverage of Anisoran and international news, financial analysis, musical pieces and specials, poetry and prose readings and the new and very popular radio plays. Radio plays began broadcasting in Anisora in 7567 with an adaptation of L. Dario Caprio's Ships of State, written by D. Mario Inglesse. The play was met with an overwhelming audience reception, and encouraged the ABI to 'stage' regular adaptations and more recently original plays, including comedies, on their stations.

Folklore

Anisor the Great slaying President Romiad, R. Saverio Gallus, 7273

Much of the folklore of Anisora pre-dates the modern foundations of the Empire, harking back centuries. A considerable amount of popular folklore emerged during the Decan Age of the 74th to 75th centuries as a result of the classical revival and the Praeclarum movement. The classical Pastanan folklore and mythology have resurfaced into the Anisoran imagination and bringing with it stories of great heroes and monsters. The ancient religious folklore and mythology also plays an important part, and while paganism is not practised in the Empire today, the stories of the gods of ancient Pastana remain popular tales to tell. The wealth and availability of ancient texts perhaps explains this. Anisoran, and more specifically, ancient Pastanan myth and folklore are a popular subject for Gothan artists.

The foundation myth of Anisora plays an important role in the wider folklore. Julian's Histories and particularly Pello's Anisiad are the most famous extant sources for the foundation myth and have influenced folkloric retelling significantly. The story tells of Anisor the Great overcoming great hardship and evil to found the united Anisoran Empire in ancient Pastana. Although of historical uncertainty, the Anisoran people largely believe the tale to be true, or at least an exaggeration of a true event3.

Lady Calliandora in the thick of the battle of Ellora, preventing her brothers from killing one another, T. Giovanni Lattorelli.

Other popular folkloric characters and stories include:

  • Riverellus, who was a legendary ancient Cadrian colonist, said to have founded the cities of Lukios and Larromissa.
  • Sabientus, an early king of Ordera who married the nymph Gelloria and had ten sons who defeated the monster Porriallo.
  • Pottera, who, while Valance was besieged, promised her hand in marriage to the god Dello, and brought about divine help and saved the city.
  • Lianorrus, a great general of ancient Pastana, who subjugated the Milluscans.
  • Victoria, the warrior queen of Aequilatos, went on many adventures and are popular children's stories.
  • Tower of Huttarian, and how it saved Valance from destruction several times.
  • Ex. Depellorrion, a medieval king of Pastana, who's divine quest set by Vind to find the most beautiful example of human creation is one of the first Orkanan myths set in Anisora.
  • St. Quinto, whose religious adventures in the West play a part in the historic Anisoran mistrust of the 'heretical' West.
  • Prince Rignoria, who tragically died at the legendary battle of Ellora, ending the great royal line of Corrius.
  • Calliandora, who at the legendary battle of Ellora, strode forth from the city and intervened to stop her brothers fighting one another.

Museums, Libraries and Galleries


Museums and Galleries

An artist's impression of the opening of the Galleria Benedettonis in 7451

There are a great number of state owned museums and galleries in Anisora, and are run and curated by the Tribunate for Culture and the Arts. The proud cultural history of Anisora means museums and galleries have been popular for centuries and are a dominant sight in her main cities. In particular, Valance is colloquially known, among other names, as the city of galleries. The city's rich history places it at the very centre of Anisoran culture and sports many of the greatest museums and galleries in Gotha.

The largest museum in Anisora is the Imperial Gallery (Pastanan: Imperiale Peristylium; Anisoran: Imperiale Galleria) in Pena and has a collection of over three million objects from every corner of Gotha, documenting the history of human culture from its beginnings to the present. The museum is a centre for cultural and historical scholarship and has a Reading Room within the museum complex, the Marius II Reading Room, which houses some 500,000 books and manuscripts.

Anisora also boasts many great art galleries, many located in Valance. The Galleria Benedettonis in Valance, named after the famous Anisoran artist Benedetto, houses one of the finest collections of portrait and landscape paintings and sculpture in the world. Other art and cultural galleries and museums of note include the Tribunicial Museum of the Colonies in Pena, the Gallery of Antiquities in Lemorria, the Museum of Pastanan Antiquities in Miena, the Gallus Museum in Tellara, the Imperial College of Martial Studies Museum in Pena, the Pallozzi Gallery in Pilano and the National History Museum in Pena.

The August Library (Augusta Bibliotheca) in Pena is one of the largest libraries in the world.

A number of scientific museums exist in Anisora. The Museum of Natural History (Pastanan: Museum Naturalis Historiae; Ansioran: Museo di Storia Naturale) in Pena is the largest and best-known of these. Others include the Quintorrian Collection, housed in Peradotto, the Rivarrion Museum in Valance and the Dallarios Museum at Valamaggiore University.

Libraries

The August Library (Pastanan: Augusta Bibliotheca; Anisoran: Augosto Biblioteca) in Pena is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 30 million items in hundreds of Gothan languages, including some 7 million books. Built in 7439 by Empress Victoria I, the building is a major attraction for Gothan scholars in the Imperial Capital. It is famous for it's yearly academic fairs, which bring together scholars from across the globe to discuss academic and scientific breakthroughs, as well as celebrate and promote shared academic history and cooperation.

Other important libraries in Anisora include the University Library of Peradotto University, the oldest working library in Anisora, dating back to around 6930, the Anisoran Library in Pena and the Library of Miena.

Science and Technology

Professor of Biological Sciences L. Lucius Dendrus lecturing at the August Library's Convention of the Sciences in 7570.

Anisoran scientific endeavour has traditionally been limited and reserved for philosophers. However, in recent centuries, a scientific trend and a fierce fascination for the natural world has emerged. In 7371 the Academia Scientiarum (Hallish: the Academy of Sciences) was founded by Emperor Marius I. The academy was the first to devote teaching solely to the sciences, where traditionally teaching the humanities and the Arts took precedent. The early Decan age saw a considerable shift in education and research, with the sciences taking a significant role for the first time.

The numerous and renowned institutions of learning across Anisora mean the Empire has a considerable infrastructure in place for the advancement of the sciences and scientific innovation. Institutions such as Peradotto University and Valamaggiore University have large scientific departments and are amongst the largest contributors to Anisoran scientific research.

The August Library in Pena holds an annual Conventus Scientiarum (Convention of the Sciences), where scholars and scientist from all over Gotha meet and discuss new discoveries and establish international research agreements. The Museum Naturalis Historiae (Hallish: Museum of Natural History) in Pena also hosts many scientific fairs and events and is seen as the centre of Anisoran scientific accomplishment.

Notable Anisoran scientists include: A. Tullio di Riva, L. Manlius Corcella, R. Marius Lex, R. Victoria Mercator, D. Lucia Fragola, M. Flavius Sunseri, T. Giovanni Giangrande, B. Severus Volentolli and S. Sandro Piermarini.

Religion

Orkanan is the majority religion in Anisora.

The state religion of Anisora is Peratolian Orkanan. Officially the Orkanan Congregation of Pastana, the interventionist branch is closely related to Hylomorphic Orkanan, with veneration of deities as being the manifestations of Vind. These deities are a significant presence in the congregation and have their own rites within the wider worship of Vind. These deities are distinctly separate from the Sno and Rå spirits of Northern Orkananism and take a variety of forms and fulfil a number of roles within Vind's masterplan.

Exemplars also form a more significant part of Peratolianism than in other branches. With the act of creation being a holy exercise, Anisoran Peratolianism venerates artistic accomplishment, as one might expect, more than most Orkanan societies. Exemplars, therefore, are many and often made up of significant creative individuals from the nation and regions history. For example, the skill of the artist Benedetto was deemed to have been divinely inspired, hence the Congregation made him an Exemplar.

Peratolianism follows the interventionist belief in divinely appointed leadership. As a result, the Emperor is the head of the Congregation in Anisora. A significant congregational infrastructure and bureaucracy exists which is separate from the government and consequently Peratolianism maintains one of the most centralised Orkanan congregations in Anaria.

Other religions are practised within the Empire, the majority made up by different branches of interventionist Orkanan as well as sizably minorities of Lazarianism and Sadarisnism. In the West, however, the Izhaic religions are a significant presence, due to the close proximity of Anat Tahan and it's historic dominance over Western Anaria. As a result of the historic hatreds between the two empires, the Alí̱theia sect of Izha is illegal in Anisora, as well as any other Izhaic religion. Anisoran Orkanan believers have long seen themselves as defenders of Orkanan Anaria, keeping out the Western heretics and barbarians. Indeed many of the countless wars between Anisora and Anat Tahan were religiously motivated.

Entertainment

Anisorans entertain themselves with many different past-times, sports, games, social clubs and activities. There is, however, a divide between how the upper classes and lower classes entertain themselves. The upper classes are traditionally characterised by their love of highbrow activities, while the lower classes by their passion for sport, although this is of course not universal. Nevertheless, across the entire social hierarchy of Anisora, literary and artistic entertainment is extremely popular, particularly reading novels and historic literature4 and listening to the radio.

Other popular forms of recreation and entertainment involve: seeing a play in the theatre - an activity which has become much more accessible to the lower classes in recent years; watching newly released films at local cinemas; visiting any number of the museums and galleries of Anisora; reading newspapers and other periodicals; enjoying the numerous and renowned wine bars across the Empire; and watching live sport, including horse-racing, football, cricket and tennis, among many other activities.

Sport

The Anisoran national football team, 7569

Sport is very popular in Anisora and her people of all classes enjoy many different games. The most popular sport is football and is played across the Empire. All major towns and cities have their own teams and they play both friendly and competitive matches. These teams can compete in the regional and national championships, whereby teams from across the Empire compete through stages, playing a number of matches in order to progress to the next round. The team that wins the national championship is traditionally awarded the Victoria Cup5, given at the very first national games in 7451. Anisora also competes internationally in football, with their team made up of the best Anisoran talent.

Other popular sports include: polo, favoured by the upper classes; cricket, a sport Anisora has done very well in internationally over recent years; horse-racing, one of the largest spectator sports in the Empire, the yearly Imperial Lorra horse-race attracts huge crowds; and tennis, probably the second most played sport in the Empire.

Education

One of the largest cultural exports from Anisora would be its education system and academic tradition.

Duke's College (Collegia Ducis) is one of the many Colleges in the world famous Peradotto University.

Education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 14. Universal free education was introduced piecemeal between 7489 and 7508, but now enjoys an established system whereby all children across the Empire can have an education. For centuries, a tradition of outstanding education amongst the elites has championed the need for education for all Anisorans and world class teaching for the elite. The current elite see their education as their claim to nobility and privilege and is one of the nation's most prized possessions, which they see as setting them apart from the rest of the world.

Lower education is, however, a two-tiered system in Anisora. Although universal free education exists, there are also a great number of private institutions, so called Electos schools, where normally only children of the elite and wealthy classes can attend. These Electos schools are considered the finest in Gotha for preparing the next generation of elites.

Education within Anisora is officially the responsibility of the Tribune and the Tribunate for Education, along with the Tribunicial Departments of Curricula and Universities and Higher Education. However, due to the importance Anisoran society places on education, the process of selecting curriculum topics and teaching methods is an extremely complex process, not left exclusively to these government departments. The Emperor is often intimately involved in matters of education, for example. Education is primarily concerned with teaching the humanities, or the 'Arts', with the sciences being of secondary importance across the system, particularly in lower education.

Higher education in Anisora is considered to be amongst the finest in Gotha. World class institutions are spread across the Empire. Most famous are the Peradotto and Valamaggiore Universities, which are amongst the oldest such institutions in Anaria and are world famous for their outstanding teaching. Consequently, along with the tradition harking back centuries, Anisoran scholarship and higher education is an influential force across Gotha, particularly Anaria. Anisoran-style schools have been set up across Gotha, becoming hugely competitive institutions and favourites for the local nobility and wealthy to send their children.

Scholarship

Anisora is renowned for its academic and scholarly tradition. Centuries of research at some of the world's most prestigious institutions has placed the Empire at the very forefront of academic endeavour. As a result of this extensive tradition, Anisora's official language, Pastanan, has become the academic language of choice across Gotha, and can be heard spoken across her universities and academic institutions and is the standard language for written theses and academic papers.

There are many scholarly organisations and clubs in Anisora which cater for the numerous gentlemen and gentlewomen scholars. These clubs have been an important function of Anisoran academic life for centuries and are places where scholars from all backgrounds can meet and discuss the latest academic findings. Amongst the oldest and most famous are the Scholars Club (Pastanan: Sodalitas Discipulorum) and the Peradottan Pastanan Society (Pastanan: Circulus Pastananus Peradottonis).

Anisora has produced a number of renowned scholars over the years, including: L. Riva Polimeni, a leading architectural scholar; S. Samuele Bonsignore, biologist; G. Livinius Mellaro, a leading literature scholar, famed for his revolutionary work on the Anisiad; T. Lucius Octalius, physicist; M. Sandro Caliendo, art historian; F. Vespasiano Ciaramitaro, Anarian historian; C. Giovanni Restuccia, mathematician; L. Ermino La Gattuta, Anarian historian; N. Marius Gianetta, theologian; D. Ermino Lancelotti, ancient linguist; P. Fillipo La Bianca, theologian; P. Goffredo Spadaro, philosopher; A. Luccia Martus, philosopher; S. Octavia Lunda, economist; L. Tullius Nestorus, lawyer; R. Isabella Stefanelli, ancient linguist; P. Viola Rufus, art historian; and G. Octavius Varus, literature scholar, among many others.

Cuisine

Anisora has some of the largest and oldest vineyards in Anaria.

Anisoran cuisine is high in seafood, grains, fruits and dairy products. Due to the traditional maritime nature of Anisorans, fish and other seafoods are important components of Anisoran cuisine.

Anisoran wine is considered to be amongst the finest in the world and is one of the largest commercial exports of Anisora. The Empire has a rich heritage of wine making and has some of the oldest vineyards in Gotha. The Pleneria Wine Company (Plenerianum Vinum) is the largest wine and alcoholic beverage producer in Anaria and owns vineyards across Anisora, Anaria and elsewhere in Gotha. The company produces some of Anisora's most famous vintages, including Mera Vallis (MVV), Imperios (IV), Shintineto (PIV) and Popollia (AV). Anisora is also known for its whiskey and spirit industries, although these are a more recent addition.

With the growth of the Anisoran empire overseas, many new exotic foods began to make an appearance in popular Anisoran cuisine. Chief among these are coffee, spices and sugar. Coffee has become a famous Anisoran taste, particularly the Anisoran cappuccino and espresso. The former is a sweet drink, served with foam or cream on the top, often accompanied by sprinkled imported cocoa. Various spices such as chillies, turmeric and lemongrass have become extremely popular in Anisora's top restaurants and can be found incorporated into new takes on traditional Anisoran seafood dishes, in particular.

Etiquette

Over the centuries Anisora has developed one of the most complex systems of social interaction and etiquette in all of Gotha, and is infamous for its adherence to strict rules in upholding Anisoran decorum and stoicism within society. The early Decan era is known to have largely brought about the intricately complex system of social interaction, due to the concentration of the nobility and ruling classes in the Penan court. These conventions have remained vitally important to all Anisorans, especially the elite, and are well known to confuse foreigners. Consequently, several books have been written on Anisoran etiquette in order to help foreigners understand the complexities of Anisoran interaction, including the Auresian Anisoran Etiquette and the Hallish How to get by in Anisora.

Language and Modes of Address

When addressing somebody for the first time (meaning every time one greets somebody else for the first time in that day6), one must address that person with their full name, including their title. For example, Good morning, Mr (Gaius) Aullus Gallus, although the praenomen can be, and often is, left out. Afterwards, one may simply address the person by their title and cognomen or simply their nomen if the circumstances allow.

With government officials and aristocracy with extended styles, the appropriate address must be given. For example, when one addresses the Emperor for the first time one is to say: Your August Imperial Majesty in the Emperor's extended style. Afterwards, Your Imperial Majesty or Your Majesty will suffice. If one is addressing a high government official, such as a Brother-Tribune, at first one must address them in their full style, for example: Your Excellency Frater Titus Marius Gallus.

If one is speaking to a child for the first time, normally these rules do not apply, and one may simply address them by their nomen or cognomen, unless the child outranks you and is older than 12.

In elite and bilingual circles, if one begins a conversation in one language, for example Pastanan, it is considered extremely rude for either party to change language. Only after permission has been sought and granted can one change language. This works for foreign languages, also. However, in informal conversation, changing languages is permitted and often shows a level of familiarity between the conversationalists.

Invitations and Socialising

All gentlemen wearing a hat when greeting somebody else should remove it and then replace it as a mark of acknowledgement and respect. Failing to do this is considered a terrible slight against the other person. Hats are not allowed to be worn by men and women inside, especially places of cultural significance, such as temples and government buildings. So to should gloves be removed when inside, unless at a ball.

When one receives an invitation by letter, a response must be sent swiftly thanking the host and either accepting or refusing, the latter with a considerable apology. It is customary for guests to bring a bottle of fine wine to a dinner party or other such event, or another such appropriate gift. If the host does not partake (although this is rare in Anisora), it is traditional to bring a basket of fresh fruit instead. It must be noted that discussion of gifts either prior to or during the event is considered extremely vulgar (unless on diplomatic or governmental business), and the gifts are deposited 'secretly' in the cloakroom or other such room.

Naming Conventions

Anisorans usually possess three names, two given names and one family name. This convention is often called a tria nomina and is separated into the groups praenomen, nomen and cognomen. For example, Gaius Marius Decus and Lino Sandro Spinello. Praenomina and nomina traditionally have two forms, a masculine and feminine, for example Gaius and Gia or Ermino and Ermina.

The praenomen is the first of the three names and is usually given to a child by their parents. Although there are no rules restricting the use of specific praenomina, the choice of the parents is usually governed by custom and family tradition. Children's praenomina are often named for ancestors or famous figures of familial significance. In some families, the same praenomen is used for all eldest children, male and female, for generations. Traditionally, especially amongst the aristocracy, there has been a limited selection of praenomina to choose from. This is a result of the popularity of Ancient Pastanan names among the elite, who tended to reuse around two dozen praenomina. However, the vast majority of Anisorans have a huge pool of praenomina to choose from. These names can and often are used as both praenomina and nomina interchangably7.

The nomen is the second of the three names and is the primary given name of an Anisoran. The ancient Pastanan convention which this imitates indicated that the person belonged to a specific family or clan, or gens. However, this has largely disappeared, and the nomen has become another given name. The traditional Pastanan names are, again, popular here, although a large number of modern Anisoran nomina are also used more commonly. The nomen is what a person is normally referred to in informal conversation. However, it is considered extremely disrespectful to address someone directly or indirectly by their nomen in a formal environment when they do not know each other well.

The cognomen is the final component in the tria nomina and is the family name. This name is passed down from parents to their children and continues the family name to the next generation.

Ancient Pastanan names are more often used by the aristocracy, especially the most important and oldest families, while modern Anisoran names by the lower aristocracy and the rest of the population. The most popular Pastanan praenomina include: Gaius/Gia, Titus, Appius/Appia, Marcus/Marcia. The most popular nomen include: Marius/Maria, Antonius/Antonia, Victoria, Flavius/Flavia, Tullius/Tullia and Lucius/Luccia.

The most popular Anisoran praenomina include: Lino/Lina, Marco, Tito/Tita, Carlo/Carla. The most popular Anisoran nomina include: Adriano/Adriana, Giovanni, Viola, Ermino/Ermina, Isabella, Bella, Livia, Sandro.

Notes

1 The 'Aurei' Poets (literally the Golden Ones) were a collection of ancient Pastanan poets and writers writing around the 53rd century, whose works are thought to have been the finest in history. They are a hugely influential group, and have influenced modern Anisoran literature and culture more broadly considerably.

2 The most notable exception would be the Mettorium in Valance. The vast dome was a world-first and paved the way for similar architectural innovations through the ages.

3 There is considerable scholarship on this question. There are three schools of thought regarding this: firstly, that the myth has no historical basis and is just that, a myth and story; secondly, that while limited historical sources prevent scholars proving the story as fact, there is enough to suggest it may have happened in some form or another and in fact the historical record prevents a comprehensive hypothesis; thirdly, that Pello's account of Anisor the Great in his Anisiad is a largely truthful account, allowing for some poetic embellishment.

4 Although most historic Anisoran literature is in Pastanan, translations of these works into modern Anisoran are very popular and make the Classics accessible to all.

5 Named after the reigning Empress Victoria II in 7451, the annual cup retains her name today.

6 It must be noted that this, in fact, means this procedure must be performed every single time one person greets another. There are, however, no specific rules for how much time should elapse before one returns to this formal greeting. It is up to the individual to determine if enough time has elapsed since their previous meeting to warrant this address. The advice given to foreigners, however, is to normally wait overnight, although this is imprecise.

7 Although there are certain names that are only ever used as praenomina and nomina respectively. For example Gaius and Gia are only ever praenomina, and Marius and Maria are only ever nomina.

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