History of Anisora

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The history of Anisora encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation-state of Anisora, as well as that of the Anisoran people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The history of the formation of the modern Anisoran Empire is very complex and incorporates the history of a great number of states, both large and small, most of which had been fully independent at some point before the foundation of the Empire in 7367. 'Anisora' has been the traditional blanket term to describe the Anisoran speaking lands around the periphery of the central and western Medio Sea.

The concept of a unified state called Anisora has an ancient origin, but most of the lands and peoples which currently make up Anisora have, for the majority of their history, been independent states. These states were often at war with one another and had their own sense of cultural identity. As such the history of Anisora incorporates a great number of distinct cultures and peoples, some of which reject a common 'Anisoran' cultural identity as many of these states were only united under a single political entity in the seventy-fourth century, or even later.

Contents

Prehistory

The early inhabitants of Anisoran lands and the Southern Medio Sea are believed to have migrated from Northern Tharna around 35-40 thousand years ago. Early archaeological evidence suggests that the indigenous Anisoran populations of the Cadrai Peninsula and the Pasticello Islands were early adopters of a maritime culture, with extensive reliance on fishing and other seafaring activities. The introduction of agriculture by the Karsk people from Eastern Anaria lessened this reliance, however a strong maritime culture remained at the periphery of the Medio Sea.

The ancient peoples of pre-Pastanan Anisora - such as the Ormerrians, the Ulbrians, the Dalmarites and the Pastarians, and many others - were Anario-Jørven peoples. The Karsk people are the most dominant ethnic group in Anisora, originally from central Anaria, with the Athves people making up the largest indigenous population of Western Anisoran lands in Anaria Minor.

Early Antiquity

A rare Dajorinian painting of a goddess from Fingoritia.

Anisoran lands were home to some of the earliest recorded civilisations in Anaria, beginning with the Herrite civilisation on the Herrian Islands (territory 1194) between 500 and 2000RH and then the Dajorinian civilisation on the mainland of the Cadrai Peninsula around 1700-2400RH. The Dajorinian civilisation was the first to develop a writing system, although it is only partly deciphered, called Pictorial 2. The Dajorinians slowly absorbed the Herrites but eventually collapsed around 2400RH due to mass migrations and invasions by the Apporrian peoples of modern day Ardennes. Civilisation in the region subsequently underwent a period of stagnation and collapse, often called the Cadrian Dark Age where no archaeological and written records survive.

The Dark Age ended around 3200RH1 with the emergence of strong and increasingly advanced city states and small kingdoms across the Cadrian Peninsula and Pasticello and Pequinella Islands. During this time, known as the Cadrian Colonial Period, these kingdoms and city states spread across the Medio Sea and established many colonies, securing resources and trading opportunities with other Median civlisations. The colonies during this period spread as far west as the Western Strait and Achilleio and as far east as the Hattaro Straits and the Aeylish Sea. These individual city states enjoyed a cultural and scientific boom, with philosophy, architecture, art, literature, mathematics, astronomy and drama flourishing during this period. The classical historian Barillotus in his monumental work The History of the Cadrian People (Pastanan: Historia Gentis Cadriani) written around 4986RH under the Pastanan Empire gives an extensive account of the city states that dotted the Medio during this period including founding stories and myths as well as narratives of important wars. He explains:

The ancient peoples of the Cadrian lands and islands spread across the Medio sea, spreading their culture and way of life the full breadth of what is now our Empire. The Cadrian languages were spoken in far off lands and the warships of the city states knew few alien shores, for the entire centre of the world was under their power. [...] 293 cities and towns paid homage to Etullia, for the city was unchallenged in war and peace.a

The Etullian Empire (3600-3850RH) was the largest and longest lived imperial hegemony over the Central Median lands, which saw the city-state of Etullia on the north-western Cadrian mainland conquer large swathes of the Cadrai Peninsula as well as many islands throughout the Medio. It primarily operated as a tributary system, whereby islands and cities across the Medio paid homage and tribute to the city of Etullia in the form of gold and silver.b Under the Etullians the arts and sciences continued to flourish, particularly drama, and Cadrian culture spread further across Northern Anaria.

Cadrian Colonial Period

Etullian Empire

Classical Period

Pastanan Empire

Dragar Monopoly

Main article: Dragar Monopoly

Middle Ages

Orkananisation

Early state building in Anisora

Incessant warfare

Confederation of Cadria

The Anisoran States (6862-7241)

Kingdom of Casella

Main article: Kingdom of Casella

Kingdom of Pastana

Main article: Kingdom of Pastana

Expansionism

Wars of the Pastanan Succession

Main article: Wars of the Pastanan Succession

Smaller States

Cadrian Republic (7241-7273)

Pastanan Civil War

Main article: Pastanan Civil War

Foundation of the Republic

Main article: Cadrian Republic

Restoration Period (7273-7306)

Valurian Dynasty

Merignan Wars

Dual Kingdom of Casella and Pastana (7306-7367)

Main article: Dual Kingdom of Casella and Pastana

Establishment of the Anisoran Empire

Anisoran Civil War

Main article: Anisoran Civil War

Confederation of Vetriano

Main article: Confederation of Vetriano
The Dual Kingdom and its client states of the Confederation of Vetriano in 7366.

The Tovan states in modern-day Western Anisora have traditionally been a fractured region, made up of a patchwork of independent and semi-independent states going back centuries. During the 73rd and 74th centuries, the Kingdoms of Pastana and Casella fought for influence and direct control over these states. By the mid 74th century and the outbreak of the Anisoran Civil War, most of these states were under the direct influence of the Dual Kingdom. However, as a result of the civil war, many of these states were forced to pick a side, although many tried to stay neutral as long as possible. By 7364, Marius, Duke of Marra had crushed the loyalist forces under Giulia, Duchess of Pensano at the Battle of Borginesca. After the loyalist army fled across the Medio to Pastana, Marius had undisputed control over Western Anisora and wished to cement his hold over the Tovan states, many of whom, including the powerful Kingdom of Matrignano and Principality of Torzarola, had sided against him in the war.

The Duke of Marra's first move into the region in the aftermath of Borginesca was to accept the surrender of those states and their princes and dukes that had declared for Princess Giulia and had provided troops to the loyalist army. Chief among these was the influential King Alfonso II of Matrignano and Prince Ferrando IV of the Principality of Vattoro. After Prince Ferrando surrendered to the Duke, the aged King Alfonso was still defiant, but was eventually relieved of command by a mutiny amongst his forces and was placed under house arrest by Marius. Marshal T. Luigi Orsiani (later known as the Prince of Tamaricciola) was installed as military governor of Matrignano and the Kingdom was secured as the most important client state of Marius Decus' growing empire.

With all resistance in Tova being quashed by the Duke's marshals by mid-August, on 18 August 7364 Marius summoned all the leaders of the Tovan states to Vetriano Castle. When the rulers were under arrest by Decus, or were with the loyalist army in Pastana, pro-Decus aristocrats were elevated as official representatives of their state, although they largely played lip-service to their respective military governors. At the Castle, Marius signed the Treaty of Vetriano, named after the Castle in which it was signed, followed by all the representatives of the Tovan states, thus establishing the Confederation of Vetriano. According to the constitution of the Treaty, Marius was declared Grand Master of the Confederation, who oversaw all military and foreign policy decisions, with all other major decisions being decided by the Council of Princes (made up of the heads of state or official representatives), which would sit at unspecified intervals under the supervision of the Grand Master. The Treaty was ratified after Marius' coronation as King of Pastana and Casella in 7365, with all member states sending representatives to the coronation to swear allegiance to the new King. The Confederation would only be in existence for three years, it being dissolved when the member states became constituent states of the Anisoran Empire in 7367.

Marian Era (7367-7423)

Marius I was the first Emperor of the Anisorans and reigned between 7367 and 7384.

The Marian Era (Anisoran: Era Mariana; Pastanan: Aetas Mariana) is the umbrella term to describe the period of Anisoran history from 7367 to 7423, during the reigns of Marius I and Marius II. The period is also known as the Early Imperial period, or simply the Early Empire to Anisoran historians. The period officially begins at the foundation of the Anisoran Empire and the signing of the constitution in 7367, but the Anisoran Civil War (7363-7365) and the earlier reign of Marius I as King of the Dual Kingdom are also sometimes included.

The Marian Era is remembered as one of the most formative periods in Anisoran history, where Anisoran identity and Anisoran nationalism came to full fruition. The era is also known for its cultural output, particularly under Marius I, patronising famous figures such as Benedetto, Giuliano Acquavena and Gesalec, among others. But the era is perhaps most often remembered, especially internationally, as a period of almost constant warfare and military expansion. The wars waged under both emperors resulted in Anisora gaining large swathes of land in Anaria Minor and by the end of the period, Anisora's hegemony over eastern Anaria Minor and the western Medio region was secure. It was during this period, particularly under Marius I, that Anisora rose to Great Power status, which would lead her into conflict with other Great Powers including Auresia, Becuvitatia, Anat Tahan, and eventually Amberia.

Anisoro-Lusavanic War

Main article: Anisoro-Lusavanic War

The war of conquest waged by the Anisoran Empire over the Kingdom of Lusavan was ostensibly started to “liberate” Anisoran speaking and other Orkanans living under Lusavanic rule, principally in Parrona and Vasharat (Vascano). Although emerging Anisoran nationalism and increasing religious tension undoubtedly played a part in the desire to go to war, most suspected more cynical motives on the part of the Anisoran emperor, Marius I, well known for his ruthless ambition and military credentials. Famously described as a “political necessity” by the Anisoran Prime Minister at the time, the Duke of Jullana, war with the Kingdom of Lusavan, along with the Kingdom of Becuvitatia, had long been a goal of the new Anisoran regime. Together, the two Kingdoms represented the most immediate threat to Anisoran hegemony over eastern Anaria Minor. According to the Anisoran military historian R. Livio di Porghiano:

"War against Lusavan was not only "necessary", but inevitable. The legitimacy of both Marius as Emperor and the entire Anisoran imperial project rested on the "liberation" of all Anisorans and the expansion of imperial protection to all Orkanan people of Anaria Minor. With the Empire barely five years old, the invasion of Lusava presented the Emperor with the perfect opportunity to prove the ambition of the Anisoran project to both his own people and the international community." c

The war against Lusavan widened to a much larger regional conflict with the intervention of the Kingdom of Becuvitatia in 7373, although this only delayed the victory of the superior Anisoran forces. In the aftermath of the crushing Anisoran victory at the Battle of Andravan (7375), the Lusavanic King Aram III, together with his Becuvitatian ally Domnitor Nicolae, were forced to concede to harsh terms dictated by the Anisorans in the Treaty of Loraveno (7375). The Treaty diminished the Kingdom of Lusavan to a shell of its former self, annexing the vast majority of the Kingdom's lands, dividing it between the newly established Principality of Parrona and the Grand Principality of Lusava, which Marius I would rule over personally. Aram III was to abdicate in favour of his young nephew, Ruben XXIII, who effectively became a puppet of the Anisoran Emperor. The war was the principal step which catapulted Anisora into Great Power status and confirmed Anisora's rise as hegemon of eastern Anaria Minor.

Auresio-Anisoran War

The Battle of Pamdo Bay was the most important battle of the conflict, and has gone down in history as one of Anisora's greatest military victories.
Main article: Auresio-Anisoran War

Also known as the War of 7395, the Auresio-Anisoran War (7395-7397) was a major conflict between the Anisoran Empire under Marius II and Auresia under Emthoro IV. The causes of the war were numerous, but it was primarily sought by the Anisoran leadership to directly challenge Auresia for control of the Medio Sea, as well as influence and trading rights in the Southern Shangti. The war was mostly fought at sea, and was a formative conflict in the development of modern naval weaponry and ship designs. The war was the first major Anarian conflict involving ironclad ships and influenced naval tactics and ship design for many decades afterwards.

The most decisive battle of the war, the Battle of Pamdo Bay, was fought on 15th May 7395 and was a resounding victory for the Anisorans under the command of Vice-Admiral G. Victor Marino over the numerically superior Auresian fleet of Legate Depusanis Oppediso. The decisive victory forced the remainder of the Auresian fleets to hide in port, with mainland Auresia blockaded for the rest of the war. Fighting continued in the Southern Shangti for a further year and a half. The Treaty of Oseidon was signed in 7397, bringing the war to an end, and granting Anisora colonial holdings in the Shangti, extensive trading rights, and undisputed naval mastery over the Medio until Amberian challenges during the War of the Becuvitatian Succession.

75th Century

War of the Becuvitatian Succession

Main article: War of the Becuvitatian Succession

Tahani Wars

Main article: Tahani Wars

Revolutions of 7473

Main article: Revolutions of 7473

76th Century

Pan-Anarian War

Main article: Pan-Anarian War and Anisora in the Pan-Anarian War
Anisoran troops from the 4th Imperial Casellan Rifles during the Battle of Chamotayk (7507).

The Anisoran Empire entered the war in support of its principal ally the Auresian Empire and the desire to resist Hellish encroachment into the Medio Sea, which Anisora viewed as principally her sphere of strategic influence. Although many within the Anisoran Senate protested Willem II of Auresia's decision to harass Hellish shipping through the Hattaro Straits, citing concerns of Auresian breaches of neutrality, when relations deteriorated and Helreich declared war on Auresia, Emperor Titus I and his Prime Minister Ermino Viantriola supported Willem II and in turn declared war on Helreich on 7 April 7498, in line with the Second Amicizia Accord (signed in 7494) which established a defensive alliance between the two empires. The following day Anisora signed the Treaty of Aschgæt and formally declared war on the United League, although she was already at war with Helreich at the treaty's signing.

The Anisoran Empire played a significant role in the worldwide conflict for the entire length of the fifty-four year war. The Tahani Front, also known as the Western Front, fought in the open spaces of Anaria Minor, saw some of the bloodiest fighting of the war and was the longest unbroken frontline in military history. The Tahani Front, contrasting the Auresian Front in Hattaria and other smaller fronts in the east, saw the vast armies of Anat Tahan and the Anisoran Empire, alongside their respective allied armies, advance and retreat in one of the most mobile frontlines of the war. Famous battles fought on the Tahani Front include: the Battle of Mallaro Ridge (1st Bahzen Campaign, 7499); the Battle of Laneka (1st Bahzen Campaign, 7503, arguably Anisora's greatest military defeat of the war); the Battle of Akhtalik (2nd Bahzen Campaign, 7505); the Battle of Chamotayk (Paranat Offensive, 7507, the bloodiest battle in Anisoran military history and Giulio Naramacora's most famous battle)...

The 1st and 2nd Battle Squadrons of the Home Fleet (Flotta Nazionale), sailing in the Sinean Sea in 7542.

At the outbreak of war in 7498, the Anisoran Imperial Navy, the Marina Imperiale, was one of the largest and most effective navies in Anaria. While not as large as the Reichsmarine of Helreich or the Reiksarmada of Amberia, the Marina Imperiale was a formidable force and operated a large surface fleet of dreadnought battleships and battlecruisers with bases throughout the Medio and across Gotha. The Marina Imperiale played a vital role in offsetting Hellish naval supremacy in Anaria and fought in the principal naval engagements of the war, at the Battle of X and X. Anisora maintained considerable influence over combined allied naval engagements and strategy throughout the war, including commanding the Combined Allied Fleet at the Battle of X under the command of Admiral Sir Domenico Poranatti. Anisoran naval innovation during the war proved invaluable to the Aschgæt cause, with Rear-Admiral Sir Raphael Deretti developing the centralised firing system (CFS), which overhauled the traditional gunlayer system, which greatly increased gun accuracy and became a hallmark of the dreadnought battleship. The Deretti system proved its effectiveness at the Battle of X in 7533 and all Anarian navies implemented the design swiftly afterwards, providing the Aschgæt Alliance with a period of naval superiority over the United League's less accurate guns.

On 10 June 7498 Anisora sent the Anisoran Expeditionary Force (FSA) to Hattaria in Auresia, two corps made up of 60,000 troops, initially under the command of Sir Giulio Narmacora, later Chief Marshal and Commander-in-Chief of Anisoran Forces. The Anisoran Expeditionary Force was the first foreign army to arrive in Auresia and played a major role in the immediate aftermath of the Fall of Porto Imperiale in late June, the Siege of Oseidon and the Battle of X before both Amberian and Aldsegian reinforcements arrived in Hattaria. The FSA remained in Auresia for much of the war and proved the commitment of Anisora to fighting the Hellish on the Auresian Front, although the number of troops did not increase by much, despite requests by the Auresian High Command.

Postwar Anisora

Economic recovery

Notes

References

a Hallish Translation: Crawford, R. (7539) Barillotus' Historia Gentis Cadriani, Book II, section 37.

b Barillotus Historia Gentis Cadriani, Book IV, section 17-19.

c di Porghiano R.L. (7578) Expeditiones Marii Primi, Pena. 287-8. (Hallish: The Campaigns of Marius I).

   Anisoran Empire   
General Flag of AnisoraCoat of Arms of AnisoraAnisoran Colonial Empire
History Anisoran PrehistoryCadrian Colonial PeriodEtullian EmpirePastanan EmpireDragar MonopolyConfederation of CadriaKingdom of CasellaKingdom of PastanaDual KingdomAnisoran Civil WarConfederation of VetrianoMarian Era (Anisoro-Lusavanic WarAuresio-Anisoran War) • Tahani WarsRevolutions of 7473Pan-Anarian WarPost-War Period
Culture and Society

Languages: AnisoranLusavaicPastanan
Religion: Orkanan (Peratolian OrkananLazarianismMellanhandMennity Orkanan) • Izha (Norynan IzhaicAlí̱theia Izhaic) • Sadarisnism
Ethnicities: AthvesKarsk
Culture and Society: Education in AnisoraAnisoran LiteratureArt of AnisoraArchitecture of AnisoraCuisine of Anisora
Status: Class in the Anisoran EmpireNobility of Anisora (Noble Houses of AnisoraPeerages of the Anisoran Empire) • Order of precedence in the Anisoran Empire

Government and Politics

Government: Emperor of the Anisorans (list) • Prime Minister (list) • CabinetParliament (Federal AssemblyImperial SenateChamber of Deputies) • High Court of Anisora
Tribunates and departments: Federal ChancelleryTreasuryForeign AffairsInteriorFederal AffairsColoniesWarNavyTrade and IndustryEducation
Political parties: Liberal PartyNational PartyOrkanan Democratic Party (ODP)New Radical PartyLusavan LeagueUnited Häverist Party (PUH)
Other: ConstitutionPrivy CouncilForeign relationsForeign Intelligence Service (SIS)Internal Security Service (SSI)

Military

Imperial Armed Forces: Anisoran Imperial ArmyAnisoran Imperial NavyAnisoran Imperial Air Force
Organisation and command: Committee of Imperial DefenceAccademia MilitareAdmiralty
Equipment: WeaponsCombat VehiclesShips
Decorations, Orders and Medals: Order of the Fauglia (OF) • Marian Order of Merit (MM) • Imperial Victorian Order (VO) • Order of VetrianoOrder of ColomberaOrder of Exemplar Depellorrion

Economy

Grana (currency)Bank of the Anisoran Empire (central bank)Pena Stock ExchangeBusinessess (Moreva Petroleum CorporationPleneria Wine Company)

Prominent people

Imperial Stim: Marius III (emperor)Avrona Lassinia (empress-consort)Grand Prince of PastanaPrincess of PilanoDuke of JelumbriaPrincess JulianaDuke of Padrina
Ruling Anisoran monarchs: Titus, Grand Prince of PastanaMichele XI of MatrignanoEmmanuele V of VattoroRaphael II of TorzarolaAlessandro III, Prince of Pensano
Politicians: Alessandro Nicotera-SarnoErmino Nizzola-MorcheseGiuliana TerranovaMichele da Matrignano-GiulianettaGiulio TarentinaTiberia LingarioGiuliana Nicotera-SarnoAram TorosyanMartino Forgianetta
Other: Pontecorvo Family

Geography

Political: Constituent states (Grand Principalities (CasellaPastanaLusava and VascanoMatrignano) • PrincipalitiesArchduchiesDukedomsDependent IslandsFree cities) • Colonies and territories
Cities: Pena (capital city)ValanceLarzoArrentoTenalevanPandagnaValamaggioreMarocidaFontanigornaVicenoPilano
Physical: Geography of AnisoraIslands of Anisora (Pasticello IslandsPequinella Islands) • Flora of the Anisoran EmpireFauna of the Anisoran Empire
Features: Cadrai PeninsulaTovaNorth Bhazen Mountains (Monte Poravetta) • Emennine MountainsMakur Valley (Makur RiverLake ParronaLake Karamon)
Bodies of water: Medio SeaWestern StraitLake CarrocetoLoverno RiverSea of CestarenaVaranese Sea

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