P. Alessandro Nicotera-Sarno

From GothaWiki

(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (Cabinets of Nicotera-Sarno)
 
Line 195: Line 195:
|-
|-
|}
|}
 +
 +
===Third Ministry (7579-present)===
 +
:''Main article: [[Third Nicotera-Sarno ministry]]''
==See also==
==See also==

Latest revision as of 20:58, 15 January 2020

Paolo Alessandro Nicotera-Sarno
Alessandro Nicotera-Sarno
Nicotera-Sarno in 7573
Prime Minister of the Anisoran Empire
In Office
18 May 7565 - 9 April 7570
Emperor Marius III
Preceded By Viscount Portomala
Succeeded By Sir Q. Giulio Tarentina
In Office
4 September 7574 - Present
Emperor Marius III
Preceded By Sir Q. Giulio Tarentina
Succeeded By Incumbent
Leader of the Liberal Party
In Office
7 November 7560 - present
Chairman Pietro Mondrena-Rovello
Adriano Lamoretti-Porviana
Countess of Bonaldo
Benedetto Zallorina
Giuliana Nicotera-Sarno
Benedetto Abravetto
Preceded By Niccolò di Farendetta
Personal Details
Born 1 March 7508
Montefredento, Casella, Anisoran Empire
Spouse T. Giulia Nicotera-Arrenzo (m.7530; d.7541)
P. Giovanna Nicotera-Palacchio (m.7543)
Alma Mater Sorrentio College, University of Peradotto
Religion Peratolian Orkanan
Party Liberal Party (Partito Liberale)

Sir Paolo Alessandro Nicotera-Sarno CEL EVM CC DC (born 1 March 7508) is the current Prime Minister of the Anisoran Empire and leader of the Liberal Party (Anisoran: Partito Liberale). He is currently serving his second term as Prime Minister, having served a full term between 18 May 7565 - 9 April 7570. In 7573 the Liberal Party formed the majority government on a platform of social reform and industrial expansion, with Nicotera-Sarno returning as Prime Minister, having remained head of the Liberal Party despite his party losing their working majority in the Chamber of Deputies in 7570.

His premierships have been dominated by his commitment to free trade, with him taking the Liberal Party to victory on a strong anti-protectionist platform in 7565 and again in 7574 in the aftermath of the signing of the Treaty of Ærilar. One of the first actions of his premiership was to repeal the protectionist trade policies Viscount Portomala and the National Party had begun to implement in 7562. Throughout his first and second tenure he has pursued an aggressive trade policy, finalising many important international trade deals and, according to many foreigners, ruthlessly expanded Anisoran trade power in Anaria and the Shangti. He has also asserted controversial foreign policies, including historic criticism of Anisora's longstanding ally Auresia, as well as unequivocal criticism of the Aedelish government.

In November 7574, after winning the election on a strong anti-protectionist platform, Nicotera-Sarno's government introduced the controversial flag of convenience policy, which allowed Vittmarker vessels to fly the Anisoran flag of convenience, thereby working around the Common Tariff and fundamentally undermining the Treaty in Anisora's favour. His most controversial policy decision to date is undoubtedly his decision to withdraw Anisora from the Straits Cartel after the passing of the Protocols of Gadalhem in April 7579, despite Anisora and Auresia voting against the protocols. His decision has been criticised by many in Anisora and abroad, with the most hostile criticism coming from the Aedelish government. He has, however, been lauded by businesses across Anaria as the most vocal defender of free trade and free market capitalism on the continent, with many Anisoran and non-Anisoran businesses openly supporting his policies.

Contents

Early Life and Education

Alessandro Nicotera-Sarno was born at his family's estate in Montefredento, southern Casella. He was the second eldest child of L. Benedetto Nicotera-Sarno and P. Adriana Dorniello-Marello, granddaughter of the future prime minister Sir Mario Dorniello-Marello. He was one of six children, with three brothers (one older and two younger) and two younger sisters. On both sides through his mother and father he was born into a political dynasty which would found the Liberal Party as a major force after the fall of the Duke of Moratto's government in 7518. His great-grandfather Mario Dorniello-Marello would become the first Liberal prime minister of Anisora, and his father would serve in his cabinet as Lord Tribune of the Treasury and Tribune for Foreign Affairs. His great-grandfather is heralded as bringing true constitutional monarchy to Anisora after the death of Emperor Flavian and for securing the elevation of the Chamber of Deputies to full legislative parity with the Imperial Senate.

Nicotera-Sarno was educated at Exemplar Vallentina School in Valamaggiore before going on to study mathematics at Sorrentio College, Peradotto (7526-7529), graduating with a second-class honours degree. His elder brother Luigi Nicotera-Sarno went on to become a fellow of Cambrillio College, lecturing in philosophy.

Early political career

Despite the ongoing Pan-Anarian War, Nicotera-Sarno resisted pressure to join the army after graduating from Peradotto, committing himself to follow his father and great-grandfather in a political career. After graduating from Peradotto he served as private secretary to his father Benedetto Nicotera-Sarno while he served as Lord Tribune of the Treasury under the premiership of Ermino Loriano-Morelli (his great-grandfather having stepped down as prime minister after the election of 7527 in favour of Loriano-Morelli). In 7532 he was elected Liberal Deputy for Petrosina, an election which saw Loriano-Morelli's Liberal government remain in power.

In 7534 he was appointed Deputy Tribune for Trade by the prime minister, despite his youth. As the son of the Lord Tribune of the Treasury and great-grandson of the founder of the Liberal Party Dorniello-Marello (who still retained considerable authority as Chairman of the Party), his appointment was criticised by many at the time as nepotistic, accusations of which continue to dog the Nicotera-Sarno and Dorniello-Marello families today. Serving under T. Giuliano di Mastrati, Nicotera-Sarno showed his aptitude for administration and interest in the economics of government. Many believed that he was set to succeed Mastrati as Tribune for Trade after the election of 7537, with the prime minister Loriano-Morelli promising Nicotera-Sarno a tribunate if he returns to government. However, the election saw the Liberals lose a great number of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and the government lost a motion of no confidence as a result. Loriano-Morelli resigned as prime minister and Emperor Titus II appointed Sir Niccolò d'Alzana, leader of the National Party, prime minister. Nicotera-Sarno retained his Petrosina seat however.

The 7537 election brought an end to the twenty-year rule of the Liberal Party and ushered in the dominance of the National Party over Anisoran politics which would last until Nicotera-Sarno's first premiership almost thirty years later. Nicotera-Sarno has described the fifteen years after the 7537 election, coinciding with the final phase of the Pan-Anarian War and the looming economic depression, as a "political wilderness" for himself and the Liberal Party. The death of Sir Mario Dorniello-Marello in 7540 hit Nicotera-Sarno and the Liberal Party hard, and after Loriano-Morelli stepped down from the party leadership after his election defeat, a succession of weak and ineffectual party leaders ensued. Contrasted with a succession of strong Nationalist governments and amplified by a lack of cooperation between opposition parties, the Liberal Party was prevented from gaining much ground until the end of the War, when unrest and economic troubles led to increased dissatisfaction with the Nationalist government.

Leader of the Opposition (7560-7565)

Prime Minister: First term (7565-7570)

During his first ministry, Nicotera-Sarno set out his government's principle aims as focused upon trade and rebuilding Anisoran industrial capacity. Already an outspoken free trader, and having won the election on a strong anti-protectionist platform, Nicotera-Sarno's goal in the early part of his first ministry was undoing the protectionist measures put in place by Viscount Portomala's government. In particular the repealing of the Imperial Trade Act (7556), which had put in place protectionist policies that limited imports of industrial goods as well as some raw resources, was Nicotera-Sarno's primary goal. However, although the original motion to repeal the bill was passed in November 7565 in the Chamber of Deputies, where the Liberal Party maintained a majority with their coalition partners, the motion was rejected in the Imperial Senate, where the Liberals were in a minority. The defeat in the Senate was the first major test of Nicotera-Sarno's government and forced him to concede that the free trade issue was far from settled. Significant support remained in both Chambers for the protectionist policies of Viscount Portomala, with even some Liberal Deputies and Peers showing resistance to the prime minister's zealous anti-protectionism.

As a result of the defeat Nicotera-Sarno redoubled his efforts to secure support for his motion in the Senate, with significant success. He managed to secure the surprising support of the ex-Nationalist prime minister Lord Toralino (prime minister between 7542-7549), who led a rebellion of numerous free trader National Peers against the Leader of the Opposition to vote in favour of repealing the Imperial Trade Act in March 7566. Together with increased discipline within his own party, championed by the Tribune for Federal Affairs and future President of the Senate Lady Bonaldo, Nicotera-Sarno succeeded in passing the legislation through both lower chambers before securing passage through the Federal Assembly. It was the first major victory for Nicotera-Sarno's government and confidence grew in his leadership, despite the still fresh divisions that the free trade issue caused within the Liberal Party.

Amongst his most controversial views has been his public criticism of Anisora's long standing ally Auresia during his first term. He frequently made his disapproval of Auresia's autocratic government clear during his first ministry, and has questioned the morality of maintaining close ties with such a repressive nation. These views have unavoidably caused significant tension within the Imperial Senate, where the conservatives maintain strong ties to Auresia and consider his views outrageous and disrespectful. Nicotera-Sarno originally had a strained relationship with Emperor Marius and it is not a secret that he does not get along with Empress Avrona Lassinia. However, during his second term as prime minister in the late 7570s his stance on Auresia has changed significantly due to Auresia's steadfast support of Anisora and many of Nicotera-Sarno's speeches and policies in the wake of raising tensions with the Straits Cartel.

Leader of the Opposition (7570-7574)

The 7570 election was mixed for Nicotera-Sarno and the Liberal Party. The free trade issue was refusing to follow party lines and ideologies, turning many within the main parties against one another and forming unlikely cross-party alliances. Despite making some gains, the Liberal Party lost a larger number of seats, but still remained the largest single party in the Chamber of Deputies. Coalition talks began immediately after the election, with Nicotera-Sarno seeking to form a coalition with the Orkanan Democratic Party, led by Sir Giulio Tarentina, but talks broke down. In a surprising twist after initial coalition talks, emperor Marius asked Tarentina to become prime minister. While a controversial choice to many in the National Party, it proving the first instance of a prime minister coming from a junior coalition partner, it was widely accepted as the best course of action. Tarentina was viewed as a suitable compromise, as he was seen as a relative neutral in the free trade debate, whereas M. Giorgio Nordorena, leader of the National Party, was a staunch protectionist and was seen as too divisive to form a stable government. Nordorena agreed to join the coalition under Tarentina, in what would prove to be a shaky and contentious alliance, mired by division.

After Tarentina secured the support of the National Party, Nicotera-Sarno went to Colombera Palace and resigned as prime minister. Despite this, he still retained considerable support within the Liberal Party and continued as leader and therefore leader of the opposition in the Chamber of Deputies. Over the next few years Nicotera-Sarno exploited the internal divisions within the ODP-National coalition and the increasing weakness of the prime minister to great effect. He successfully organised numerous government defeats in both the Chamber of Deputies and Imperial Senate, including alterations to key social security legislation and budget cuts.

Treaty of Ærilar

On 28 August 7574 Anisora signed the Treaty of Ærilar which established a Common Tariff over the major straits of Anaria, including the Western Strait on Anisora's north-west coastline. The agreement, signed by most major Anarian powers, was hugely controversial in Anisora and caused major dispute and criticism from across the political spectrum. Sir Giulio Tarentina, the prime minister, was criticised fiercely by the opposition for lack of leadership and seeming subservience to Giorgio Nordorena, leader of the National Party. While Tarentina was viewed as a relative neutral in the free trade debate, many political commentators have described the signing of the agreement as inevitable and systematic of the prime minister's weak position. Under considerable pressure from his own coalition partners, as well as the equally considerable international pressure to sign the agreement, Tarentina was placed "between a rock and a hard place" and ultimately had no choice but to sign, even if he did not want to.

Nicotera-Sarno and the free traders lobbied hard for Anisora to not sign the agreement, but ultimately the need to keep his Nationalist coalition partners on side, and the growing international pressure to sign, forced Tarentina's hand. There was hope by some that the emperor would intercede on the anti-protectionist side, but this was dismissed as systematic of free trader desperation - particularly as the emperor had, if anything, shown sympathies for the protectionist policies of the National Party. The emperor authorised the signing of the Treaty and Tarentina committed his government to supporting the agreement.

After its signing, Nicotera-Sarno described the Treaty as "disastrous" and as "entirely undermining free trade in Anaria." He immediately attacked the coalition government and the complacency of the Orkanan Democratic Party in what he described as "Nationalist aims to entirely undermine our national economy." Furthermore, after Vittmark openly decried the Treaty and began isolating port concessions, Nicotera-Sarno attacked the weakened Prime Minister, arguing that the Treaty was not only economically disastrous but morally wrong, and that Anisora should stand in support of the young nation of Vittmark and other nations that stood to lose the most under the Treaty.

In the week after the signing of the Treaty, the prime minister's position went from bad to worse. Relentless pressure from the opposition Liberal Party, from moderates and free traders within his own Orkanan Democratic Party, as well as from disgruntled coalition Nationalist politicians and tribunes, effectively prevented the prime minister from governing in any meaningful way. Nationalist politicians, led by the Marquess of Toralino, the Tribune of the Interior, saw the prime minister's weakness as an opportunity for the National Party to gain a majority in the Chamber of Deputies and form a majority Nationalist government. A debate in the Imperial Senate on 1 September descended into chaos, with furious criticism of the prime minister reaching a crescendo with the Lord Toralino attacking his coalition partner and resigning from the government, calling for fresh elections. His resignation inspired a number of other Nationalist tribunes to resign from Tarentina's coalition government. On 4 September Tarentina lost a vote of confidence in the Chamber of Deputies and announced his resignation, advising the emperor to call fresh elections, which were duly announced.

Prime Minister: Second term (7574-7579)

Portrait of Nicotera-Sarno in 7579, by Claudio Borenivo.
See also: Anisoran federal election, 7574

As leader of the single largest party in the Chamber of Deputies, Nicotera-Sarno was asked by the emperor to stand in as interim prime minister until the time of an election, which was swiftly arranged for the following month. The election campaign was arguably the most heated since the Pan-Anarian War. Nicotera-Sarno led a fierce campaign, travelling throughout the Empire to drum up support for his anti-protectionist policies, decrying the Treaty of Ærilar and highlighting the benefits of free trade. The National Party under Giorgio Nordorena led an equally fierce campaign, supporting in turn the Treaty and lauding the protectionist policies of his predecessor Lord Portomala.

On 1 October Nicotera-Sarno's government won the largest share of seats in the Chamber of Deputies, clearly reflecting the increasingly negative public opinion of the Treaty thanks to Nicotera-Sarno's campaigning, although widespread unpopularity of the National Party leader Giorgio Nordorena strengthened Nicotera-Sarno's lead. Although the largest party, the Liberals were 9 seats short of a majority. The Liberals entered into talks with the New Radical Party, who had made significant gains in the election, and the two agreed to enter coalition. The Liberal-Radical coalition provided a majority of 12. The National Party meanwhile failed to make major breakthroughs in the industrial centres of Anisora, most of them traditionally Liberal constituencies, while the Liberals made gains in many areas. The Orkanan Democratic Party's vote collapsed and was reduced to a shell of its former self, with the ex-prime minister Giulio Tarentina losing his Sandreva seat.

Aftermath of the Treaty of Ærilar

One of the first actions of Nicotera-Sarno's second premiership was the controversial decision to allow Vittish ships to get around the Treaty by flying the Anisoran flag of convenience, which came into force in November 7574. This caused significant tension within the government and Senate, the free trade issue having dominated and divided Anisoran politics for the last ten years. His decision has been described as both "subtle genius" by his supporters and, according to the Marquess of Toralino, "the most cynical pettiness I have ever seen in international politics." The decision placed considerable strain on relations with Aedeland, who had proposed the Treaty, which the National Party leader Lord Toralino very publicly condemned. Upon hearing that Anisora would pursue the policy, the Aedelish Forer Vilhelm av Ambrodring was said to have muttered, "each betrayal begins with trust." The policy would usher in a period of increased tension and distrust between Anisora and Aedeland.

Since then Nicotera-Sarno has championed strengthening ties with Vittmark and improving Anisoran trading relationships in northern Stoldavia, which forms an important part of his policy.

Protocols of Gadalhem

On 10 April 7579 the members of the Straits Cartel met at Tasmandorp Castle to vote on the Protocols of Gadalhem. The council was called to primarily address the circumvention of the Treaty of Ærilar by the Anisoran Flag of Convenience Policy implemented by Nicotera-Sarno's government over four years before. The protocols that were proposed included: stricter rules on flags of convenience; the formulation of how revenues of the Tariff would be divided amongst signatories; the creation of an auditory council to create an inspection and reporting regime to ensure compliance and facilitate mutual aid; and the implementation of procedure for amending and expelling members in violation of the protocols.

The Anisoran delegation, led by Lord Valiano, the Tribune for Foreign Affairs and a long time supporter of Nicotera-Sarno and fellow free trader, described the protocol proposals as "insulting" and "indicative of Aedeland’s determination to control Anarian trade at others’ expense." In particular the proposals for inspection and confiscation of vessels by Aedelish and other members' militaries and the distribution of tariff revenues (Anisora allocated one-eighteenth of the total, Aedeland one-sixth) were grounds for Anisoran resistance. The protocols were put to a vote, with five in favour (Aedeland, Amberia, Anat Tahan, United Royal Provinces, and Helreich) and two against (Anisora and Auresia).

Despite the vote not being unanimous, the protocols were passed. In a statement after the protocols were passed, Nicotera-Sarno described the situation as "contrary to the most basic observances of individual sovereignty. If all voices are not heard within a group of supposed equals, it is impossible to reach a mutual understanding." As a result Nicotera-Sarno addressed the Chamber of Deputies and announced Anisora's withdrawal from the Straits Cartel, followed swiftly by a similar announcement from the Auresians. During his now famous 'Gadalhem Speech' in parliament he described the protocols in distinctly military terms and condemned the signatories, in particular Aedeland, for increasing tensions in Anaria:

"This amendment to the Treaty of Ærilar is an insult to Anisora and the free nations of Anaria.

"Aedeland, and seemingly the other signatory nations, seek to turn the waters of Anaria into a battleground, where ships of all flags and colours are subject to inspection, confiscation and detention by foreign military vessels. I cannot speak for Aedeland, but the memories of the War are still fresh in this country; the wounds are still healing. We sacrificed so very much blood and treasure during that most horrific conflict, and fought so long for peace to reign over Anaria and the world. This Treaty, which the Aedelish originally proposed as a means to avoid conflict over the straits, is quickly turning into precisely the catalyst for Anarian tension it supposedly sought to avoid.

"I only regret that the previous government had the ill sense to entertain such ideas by signing the Treaty in the first place. My government cannot agree to wilfully throw away Anisoran sovereignty in light of this amendment. And this government cannot in all conscience be a part of an increasingly aggressive and tyrannical agreement that seeks to destroy the entire basis of free trade.

As a result of Anisora and Auresia's withdrawal from the Treaty, the Cartel lost control of the Medio Sea as well as the shipping route from the Sol Sea to the Sinean Sea through the Medio and the year-round route from the Stolvic Ocean to the Shangti. Many have questioned whether the Treaty can be enforced at all after this, with Nicotera-Sarno saying in no uncertain terms that businesses will not want to pay the tariff when other avenues of free trade exist - namely in Anisoran waters. Furthermore, Nicotera-Sarno's policy has garnered him many followers and admirers across Anaria, including non-signatory nations such as Vittmark, Ardennes, Penryn and Becuvitatia, as well as a great many business leaders and industrialists throughout Anaria who view the Cartel as a threat to their business interests.

Foreign and Trade Policy

Nicotera-Sarno is well known, many would say infamous, for his controversial foreign policy, and has gained a reputation as a harsh negotiator in pushing foreign trade deals. He also makes no secret of his ambitions to expand Anisoran influence in Anaria and Tzeraka and is one of the most prominent advocates of free trade in Anaria, arguing that "free trade is the lifeblood of our nation. Without it we turn backwards to uncertainty and poverty." He has secured important international trade deals with X and X as well as pushing for increased productivity in the heavy industries with the ultimate aim of improving Anisora's energy security. In recent years free trade has come to dominate his government's policies, with some critics saying that Nicotera-Sarno has turned the Liberal Party into the "Free Trade Party," with other critics describing his government as a "single policy government" - meaning free trade.

Issue

Spouse Name Birth Marriage Their children
Spouse Date
T. Giulia Nicotera-Arrenzo T. Marco Nicotera-Sarno 9 January 7535 L. Maria Nicotera-Sarno-Monticone 11 May 7554
P. Bella Nicotera-Sarno
N. Luisa Nicotera-Sarno
M. Diana Nicotera-Sarno
L. Giuliana Nicotera-Sarno 1 August 7538 T. Martino Panavi 18 April 7574
Giovanni Panavi-Nicotera-Sarno
P. Giovanna Nicotera-Palacchio H. Ermina Dorniello-Marello-Nicotera 13 January 7544 L. Tito Dorniello-Marello 21 November 7563
T. Sophia Dorniello-Marello
L. Giulia Dorniello-Marello
H. Alessandro Dorniello-Marello (d. 7575)
A. Luisa Nicotera-Sarno 30 September 7547 N/A N/A
N/A
M. Luigi Nicotera-Sarno 7 November 7548 H. Agostina Nicotera-Sarno-Giunavera 19 June 7575/
8 November 7578
P. Mario Nicotera-Sarno
 
Giuliano Loriano-Apprachelli 15 February 7579 N/A

Cabinets of Nicotera-Sarno

First Ministry (7565-7570)

Second Ministry (7574-7579)

PortfolioMinisterTook officeLeft officeParty
Prime Minister
Principle Lord of the Chamber
Sir Alessandro Nicotera-Sarno4 September 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Federal ChancellorEmanuele de Torviano7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
President of the Senate
Lord Privy Seal
The Countess of Bonaldo7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Lord Tribune of the TreasuryThe Viscountess of Ladara7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Tribune for Foreign AffairsThe Marquess of Valiano7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Tribune for the Interior
President of the Chamber of Deputies
Sir Adriano Lamoretti-Porviana9 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Tribune for Federal AffairsMartino Forgianetta7 October 757417 November 7579New Radical Party
Chief Lord of the JudiciaryTito Dorniello-Marello7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Tribune for the ColoniesThe Count of Vestignano
Giuliana Nicotera-Sarno
9 October 7574
27 March 7576
27 March 7577
17 November 7579
Liberal Party
Liberal Party
Tribune for WarErmino Lusavo7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Tribune for the NavySir Umberto Vicenize7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Chancellor of the IslesGiuliana Nicotera-Sarno
Pietro Marberini
7 October 7574
27 March 7576
27 March 7576
17 November 7579
Liberal Party
Liberal Party
Tribune for Trade and IndustryBenedetto di Acquarone
Lord Morena
7 October 7574
27 March 7576
27 March 7576
17 November 7579
Liberal Party
Liberal Party
Tribune for EducationLuigi della Rovennorina7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Tribune for Public Works and InfrastructureValentino Rapallino-Ricci7 October 757417 November 7579New Radical Party
Tribune for LabourLord Morena
Tito Esemploro
7 October 7574
27 March 7576
27 March 7576
17 November 7579
Liberal Party
Liberal Party
Tribune for Culture and the ArtsDame Adriana da Giugliano7 October 757417 November 7579Liberal Party
Lord Alf of the CongregationsLord Aguirre-Lorentina
Lord di Parrona
7 October 7574
11 April 7578
9 April 7578
17 November 7579
Independent
Independent

Third Ministry (7579-present)

Main article: Third Nicotera-Sarno ministry

See also

Anisora  Anisora portal

Notes

References

Offices and distinctions
Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of the Anisoran Empire Succeeded by
Viscount Portomala 7565 - 7570 Sir Giulio Tarentina
Sir Giulio Tarentina 7574 - present Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by Leader of the Liberal Party Succeeded by
Niccolò di Farendetta 7560 - present Incumbent
Order of precedence
Preceded by Order of precedence in the Anisoran Empire Succeeded by
Lord Vorantino
as Lord Tribune of the Council
Knight
as Prime Minister of the Anisoran Empire
Giuliano Sorciano-Mordese
as Prime Minister of Casella
Personal tools