Wortsproke

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===Writing system===
===Writing system===
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The alphabet is a 25-letter alphabet, using the basic Stoldavo-Anarian alphabet plus the three additional letters Å / å, Ä / ä, and Ö / ö, which are sorted in that order following y as individual letters. The letters J, Q, W and Z are not used.
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The alphabet is a 26-letter alphabet, using the basic Stoldavo-Anarian alphabet plus the three additional letters Å / å, Ä / ä, and Ö / ö, which are sorted in that order following y as individual letters. The letters Q, W and Z are not used.  
-
* The ''j'' is present in names, mainly in [[Liden]] and [[Sörmark]]. In Liden it is a graphical variation, a "longer i", while in the south the ''j'' was in use during the time the area was governed by [[Mörenburg]]. The letter isn't registered by the language body though.
+
* The ''q'' is only present older placenames, mainly from the Imperial age, and has been replaced by ''k'' in the ortography rules.
* The ''q'' is only present older placenames, mainly from the Imperial age, and has been replaced by ''k'' in the ortography rules.
* The letter ''w'' is treated merely as a variant of ''v'' used only in foreign names (such as "Wallenberg"), and so it is both sorted and pronounced as a ''v''. In written form it usually is a ''vv''
* The letter ''w'' is treated merely as a variant of ''v'' used only in foreign names (such as "Wallenberg"), and so it is both sorted and pronounced as a ''v''. In written form it usually is a ''vv''
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While "v" and "w" are considered the same letter, this is not entirely the case for the "i" and "j". The "i" is being used as a vowel and consonant in a similar way as the "y" in Hallish. It is however difficult to sense the different use of this letter, especially at the end of words. Verbs like "dölia" (to hide, pronounced DUL-ya) and "skölia" (to rinse, pronounced XUL-ya) can easily be recognized but the shorter inflictions "döli" and "sköli" are not recognized as single syllable words.
While "v" and "w" are considered the same letter, this is not entirely the case for the "i" and "j". The "i" is being used as a vowel and consonant in a similar way as the "y" in Hallish. It is however difficult to sense the different use of this letter, especially at the end of words. Verbs like "dölia" (to hide, pronounced DUL-ya) and "skölia" (to rinse, pronounced XUL-ya) can easily be recognized but the shorter inflictions "döli" and "sköli" are not recognized as single syllable words.
-
People from Liden and Sörmark have urged linguists to include the "j" as separate letter in the alphabet. This has gone so far that Liden, Sörmark and Fjällsta Stift are using the "j" even in their official communication between member states and towards federal institutions. This is a wrongful application of the language, but due to the fact that there are no sanctions for these minor offences it continues to be used.
+
People from Liden and Sörmark have urged linguists to include the "j" as separate letter in the alphabet. This has gone so far that Liden, Sörmark and Fjällsta Stift are using the "j" even in their official communication between member states and towards federal institutions. The ''j'' has always been present in names, mainly in [[Liden]] and [[Sörmark]]. In Liden it is a graphical variation, a "longer i", while in the south the ''j'' was in use during the time the area was governed by [[Mörenburg]]. The letter wasn't registered by the language body until 7580. It was orginally added as the 26th letter after the ''ö'', but that led to problems categorizing existing words that suddenly had two allowed spelling forms. It is currently categorized at the same spot as the ''i''.
===Regulatory bodies===
===Regulatory bodies===

Latest revision as of 20:52, 10 November 2019

Wortsproke
Vårtspråk
[[File:|200px]]

'

Pronunciation /woa:rtsproak/
Region North-central Stoldavia

 Vittmark

Status Living
Speakers c. 9 million
Language family Achlt
Stoldavic
Northern Stoldavic
Imperial Stoldavic
Wortsproke
Parent languages Regional languages of Ådalen, Hagen, Liden, based on the dialect of Skara.
Early forms High Stoldavic, Imperial Stoldavic
Writing system Anarian alphabet (Wortsproke variant)
Official status
Official in  Vittmark
Regulated by Språkrådet

Wortsproke is the official language of Vittmark, where it is called Vårtspråk, which literally means "our language". Sometimes the name wortspoke or wortspeach is used as well, but these are not the right terms. The language is a recent creation, connected to the creation of Vittmark as a nation state in 7564RH, out of several dialects and language variations in the region. It was presented as national language in 7566 and is currently being deployed as national standard.

Along with the other North Stoldavian languages, Wortsproke is a descendant of the main languages as spoken in the Orkanan Realm of Stoldavia and the Stoldavic Empire. Due to the creation of different nation states the last 400 years, many language varieties have been developed. Wortsproke is an attempt to create a common language for the inhabitants of the young nation, which doesn't differ from the spoken and written dialects and variations.

The language is based on the dialect as spoken in Ådalen and Liden, which have developed congruent during the last 3 centuries. The recent major reform of orthography was applied in 7566. It homogenized the spelling of /v/ (instead of /w/) and changed the adverbial and neuter adjectival ending -dt to -t or -tt depending on the length of the preceding vowel. The phrase hvarken af silfver eller rödt guld is now spelled varken av silver eller rött guld.

Contents

History

During the 55th century, Stoldavic was spoken on Stoldavia, the northern shores of Thultannia and the Cheltic Isles. After the fall or the Orkanan Realm of Stoldavia, the language development started to diverge in the different corners of the Stoldavic speaking area. Three main branches developed, an eastern called Early Cheltic on the Cheltic Isles, a southern called Early Stoldish on southern Stoldavia and Thultannia, and a northern called (Northern) Stoldavic on northern Stoldavia. Wortsproke developed from this northern branch.

Northern Stoldavic

Written sources from the Northern Stoldavic period are scarce. The FYRIHUGN rune alphabet was still used but the language used does not resemble present day Wortsproke much. It is however a direct predecessor.

Scarch

During the era of Skara Samverkan (6800-7000) the Scarch language became the lingua franca in many coastal towns of Stoldavia and northern Thultannia. Scarch had a lot of characteristics of the southern, Stoldish branches as well, partially due to the influence of Mountain Stoldish from present day Sörmark and Mörenburg. Although very influential, Scarch can not be seen as a direct predecessor to Wortsproke. It however established the use of the vowels "å", "ä", and "ö", which still are present today.

High Stoldavic

High Stoldavic originally was the local dialect spoken around Östvallen and Kletudde. The application of the printing press meant that this language variation became a standard in a much wider area. Where Scarch mainly was a traders language with a religious undertone, High Stoldavic began its expansion by the distribution of the Mellanhand Translation of the Holy Scriptures around 6900. The Mellanhand Translation is often considered to be a reasonable compromise between old and new and can be seen as a direct predecessor to Wortsproke.

Imperial Stoldavic

High Stoldavic evolved into Imperial Stoldavic, which was one of the main languages of the Greater Stoldavic Empire (the other being Imperial Stoldish as spoken in southern Stoldavia). The main difference with High Stoldavic was the transformation of the spoken language into the written language according to the standardization of 7034RH.

Diversification

After the fall of the Empire, many smaller nation states emerged in the area where Imperial was spoken. It led to a diversification into separate languages as Dunsvic, Storlidish, Odalic, Hagenish and Kobbish, which still were all mutually intelligable. The entire area currently covered by Vittmark became a dialectal continuum. The eastern languages Dunsvic and Hagenish developed more into the direction of Aedelish under the influence of a wave of traditionalism. This was partially in response to the expansion of Hagen in the area, where independant city states and principalities tried to emphasize the language differences with expansive Hagen. The Storlidish languages underwent a modernization due to industrialization and the accompanying urbanization around 7500.

Wortsproke

After the formation of Vittmark as a nation state in 7564, King Karl av Kulla quickly appointed a committee to deal with the language issue of the highly diverse nation. After a year, it presented a report titled "Utredning av vårt språk, forskning för ett gemensamt språk i Vittmark" (Research of our language, for a common language in Vittmark).

The spelling proposals have been met by negative responses all over the nation. Most people don't want to give up the spelling they have been using since decades or centuries, and especially not those people that oppose Vittmark as a nation state. The reform is considered too modern by many religious leaders. It has a less formal written language which comes closer to the spoken language variations in the largest member states of Ådalen and Liden.

Queen Anna has defended the language reform and called it a "necessary step towards communication between all the people in this beautiful nation". She also explained that given names, placenames and religious texts do not need to change, and that everyone is free to use a dialect or variation in everyday life and even local government. However, Wortsproke will be the only language variation tought at schools, used in communication between the member states and in science.

Grammar

The standard word order is Subject Verb Object, though this can often be changed to stress certain words or phrases. Wortsproke words have comparatively few inflections:

  • there are two genders (defined and neutrum)
  • almost no grammatical cases, except for the genetive -s suffix
  • a distinction between plural and singular.

Adjectives are also inflected according to gender, number and definiteness. The definiteness of nouns is marked primarily through suffixes (endings), complemented with separate definite and indefinite articles.

There are however still remnants present of verb infliction and grammatical cases, especially in standing expressions. The plural suffix -o in verbs is still used in The Scriptures and therefore in many songs, hymns and prayers. The suffix is also used to stress formal or ritual situations, for example in the slogan "vi äro släkt" (we are related). The -o suffix is still visible in compound nouns, for example veckodag (day of the week).

Due to the lack of inflections, the structure of a sentence is an important part of expression in Wortsproke. Sentence parts should be placed at a specific location within a sentence in order to create understandability. Without the right syntax a sentence can become a loose gathering of words. The usual syntax is: Subject - Verb - Object - (Subsentence) - Indication of time - Indication of place. Even in a subsentence the Subject-Verb-Object rule applies. If certain parts are moved around, then a sentence can get a different meaning. For example if the indication of time is the most important message, then this can be placed at the start of the sentence.

Intonation and pronounciation

The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities.

The language has a comparatively large vowel inventory. There is a distinction between 'soft' vowels (e, i, y, ä, ö) and 'hard' vowels (a, o, u) which has effects on the pronounciation of the preceding consonant. For example, the k in "katt" (cat) is pronounced as K, while the k in "kött" (meat) os pronounced as SH. A similar phenomena occurs with the letter g, which behaves in the same way as in Hallish. The combination si (sometimes spelled sj) is pronounced almost like TH in Wortsproke.

Wortsproke is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, a highly variable consonant phoneme. Consonant combinations starting with an s followed by a soft vowel result in sounds usually not present in most other languages:

  • "shockat" (shocked) - Xo:kat
  • "sked" (spoon) - Xwey:d

Writing system

The alphabet is a 26-letter alphabet, using the basic Stoldavo-Anarian alphabet plus the three additional letters Å / å, Ä / ä, and Ö / ö, which are sorted in that order following y as individual letters. The letters Q, W and Z are not used.

  • The q is only present older placenames, mainly from the Imperial age, and has been replaced by k in the ortography rules.
  • The letter w is treated merely as a variant of v used only in foreign names (such as "Wallenberg"), and so it is both sorted and pronounced as a v. In written form it usually is a vv
  • The x is a more recent addition, which has replaced combinations like cks.
  • The z is only used in foreign names, but the letter isn't registered by the language body. Both Z and 3 are in use as surrogates.

The alphabet has evolved in several steps from the fyrihugn runes used in the Orkanan Realm of Stoldavia. During Skara Samverkan (6600-7000) the rune system was adapted for use on paper instead of stone, bone and wood carvings. Around this time, the B, D, G, P and R roughly got their current forms. In Scarch the letters got more rounded. During the Greater Stoldavic Empire, more letters were adapted from the Anarian alphabet, which were in use in the southern parts of the empire. In this era, the A, E, O and S roughly got their current form, while the L and M got flipped. The C, X and Z were new introductions. The Ä, Ö and Å were writen as digraph AE, OE and AA at this time. The use of book printing techniques led to a further evolution of the alphabet. After the demise of the empire, the writing system evolved around handwriting again, which led to a modification of the H, a simplification of the S, Y and Z and a vertical flip of the U. The Ä, Ö and Å got its current form with diacretical signs. The only differences with the standard Anaro-Stoldavic alphabet today are the sole use of double stack A and G (which roughly reads as 8).

Evolution of the Wortsproke alphabet from its predecessors. Yellow lines indicate radical transformations.

The letter J

While "v" and "w" are considered the same letter, this is not entirely the case for the "i" and "j". The "i" is being used as a vowel and consonant in a similar way as the "y" in Hallish. It is however difficult to sense the different use of this letter, especially at the end of words. Verbs like "dölia" (to hide, pronounced DUL-ya) and "skölia" (to rinse, pronounced XUL-ya) can easily be recognized but the shorter inflictions "döli" and "sköli" are not recognized as single syllable words.

People from Liden and Sörmark have urged linguists to include the "j" as separate letter in the alphabet. This has gone so far that Liden, Sörmark and Fjällsta Stift are using the "j" even in their official communication between member states and towards federal institutions. The j has always been present in names, mainly in Liden and Sörmark. In Liden it is a graphical variation, a "longer i", while in the south the j was in use during the time the area was governed by Mörenburg. The letter wasn't registered by the language body until 7580. It was orginally added as the 26th letter after the ö, but that led to problems categorizing existing words that suddenly had two allowed spelling forms. It is currently categorized at the same spot as the i.

Regulatory bodies

The Wortsproke Language Council (Vårtspråkrådet) is the official regulator. It is connected to the University of Östervallen's domestic languages department, but financed by and accountable to the Executive Cabinet (Department for development).

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